Neon Tetra Guide: Everything A Beginner Should Know To Care For Neon Tetra Fish

 Neon Tetra (Paracheirodon innesi), dazzling crown jewels, is the most popular freshwater tropical fish. The Neon Tetra fish is recognized as a peaceful community fish belonging to the Characidae family.

Neon Tetra Guide: Everything A Beginner Should Know To Care For Neon Tetra Fish
Neon Tetra Guide: Everything A Beginner Should Know To Care For Neon Tetra Fish

 They are active, colorful, non-aggressive fish that can co-exist with other non-aggressive fish of similar size. Neon tetras are easy to care for and ideal for beginners looking to get into the hobby of fish farming.

This is an informative article. Nodisk One is not permitted to make a diagnosis or recommend any form of veterinary care. If your pet is in pain or ill, we recommend that you take him to the vet.

Neon Tetra Characteristics

Care Overview 

- Care Level: Easy.

- Behavior: Peaceful.

- Life Span: Up to 10 years.

- Tank Size: Min 10 gallons (planted).

- Living Zone: Mid-upper.

- Temperature: 72°-76°F (22.2°-24.4°C).

- Ammonia: 0 ppm.

- Nitrite: 0 ppm.

- Nitrate: <20 ppm.

- pH: 6-7.

- GH: <10 dGH (<166.7 ppm).

- KH: 1-2 dKH (17.8- 35.8ppm).

Scientific Classification

- Species: P. innesi.

- Family: Characidae.

- Class: Actinopterygii.

- Genus: Paracheirodon.

- Kingdom: Animalia.

- Order: Characiformes.

What Does Neon Tetra Look Like?

 Neon Tetra has striking colors that attract people's attention whether in the aquarium or in the wild. These beautiful fish have a turquoise blue line combined with a sparkling silvery white color that extends from its eye to the adipose fin which is beautiful when moving in groups. On the other hand, these luminous stripes make them more visible in black water.

 In addition to the blue and white band, they have the red color from the belly to the tail. These three shade combinations of blue, white and red are perfectly suited to the Neon Tetra and make it the most popular and recognizable aquarium fish in the world.

 When you see them at first glance, they will melt your heart with their ravishing appearance. But neon tetras are often confused with cardinal tetras because of the red line that runs from the middle of their body to their tail. That is why it is necessary to know the difference between Neon Tetra and Cardinal Tetra.

Cardinal Tetra Vs Neon Tetra

 If you look closely you will notice that the red stripe runs from all the way up (head) down (tail) in Cardinal Tetra but not in Neon Tetra. In Neon tetra, it extends only from the middle of the belly to the tail. Neon Tetra has a bit of a silvery color to the top of the body, which runs from the head to the dorsal fin. The dorsal fin, anal fin and tail of the neon tetra are transparent.

Neon Tetra Overview

 The bright and vibrant color of Neon Tetra is one of the main reasons for its popularity among aquaculturists. Its peaceful demeanor and simple diet are the most notable factors for aquaculturists, making it an ideal fish to start with. It is found in translucent, black, red and blue colors. Sometimes you will be confused with Cardinal tetra, Black Neon Tetra, Neon Gold Tetra, Yellow Neon Tetra because they look alike.

Neon Tetra Origin

 Neon Tetra was discovered by August Rabaut, a French traveler during his expedition to the Amazon jungle. Europeans became a big fan of neon tetras when August Rabaut brought them to Europe to sell.

Where Are Neon Tetras Found?

 The neon tetra is a tropical freshwater fish found primarily in the Amazon Basin of South America. It is mainly found in the western and northern parts of the Amazon Basin in southeastern Colombia, Peru and Brazil.

The Habitat Of Neon Tetra In The Wild

 Neon Tetra (Paracheirodon innesi) lives in Blackwater Creek and its tributaries in the western and northern Amazon and the Orinoco basin in Brazil, Colombia and Peru. These waterways are teeming with driftwood and plants as if nature itself created the art of aquascape for fish. Neon tetra spends most of the time wandering around these plants and driftwoods, providing some kind of protection and hiding place for its predator.

 In the wild, they live in the middle of slow-moving stream water, which feeds on insects, worms, and small creatures. Neon Tetras form schools of fish, so they sway together in a tribe with an energetic movement that creates a beautiful display of color. It has red, orange and gray colors in its body which make it an attractive and active fish in the tank.

Neon Tetra Distribution: How Are Neon Tetras Sold?

 In the beginning of time, Neon Tetras were captured from the wild, brought to market and sold to the public. With the growing demand for Neon Tetra around the world, now, after successful breeding, they are bred and bred in captivity in Eastern Europe and the Far East to meet the demand of aquarists around the world.

 Less than 5% of the Neon Tetra you see on the market are wild caught. Due to its popularity, some countries like Hong Kong, Thailand, and Singapore have also started the captive breeding trade. Over 1.50 million neon grouse are imported into the United States each month.

Availability Of Neon Tetra

 Neon Tetras are readily available in all stores ranging from online shopping to local stores around your convenience. You can easily get these fish from your local fish store nearby.

Neon Tetra Award

 Today, most Neon Tetras are bred in captivity. This makes them gradually accessible, as they do not need to be mined from nature. Neon Tetras are about to be sold at $2-$3 a pair on neon tetra fish. For this reason, they are cheap and can be easily found in stores.

Neon Tetra Lifespan: How Long Do They Live?

 The lifespan of neon tetras varies depending on the environment they are in. In the wild, you will find them happy for up to 10 years without any problems. However, this automatically shortens by 2-5 years when you bring neon tetras into the captive aquarium.

Neon Tetra Size: How Big Do They Get?

 When considering petting a neon tetra, many questions also arise regarding size? How big are Neon Tetras?

 The truth is that adult Neon Tetras are not big fish. However, they are not extremely small fish either. Neon Tetras have an elongated body. They reach about 1.2 inches or 3 centimeters on average, but they can reach a maximum length of 2.5 inches, with females being shorter than males.

Male And Female Neon Tetra: How To Differentiate

 The most accurate way to tell male and female neon tetras apart is to look at their stomach. At spawning time, the female neon tetra will have a rounded belly because she has to carry eggs, while the males will have a slimmer body. The blue line in males appears to be straight, while due to the rounded body it is a bit curvy in the female body.

How Hard Is It To Keep Neon Tetra?

 Due to the neon tetra disease, this fish can be injured a little. Otherwise, it is one of the ideal fish to start with.

Types Of Neon Tetra

 Other than the neon tetras with red, blue, and silver bodies (the first fish that fascinated me), there are numerous other varieties of neon tetras. You knew that, right? Some examples of common neon tetras include:

  • True Neon Tetras.
  • Long Fins Neon Tetras.
  • Gold Head Neon Tetras.
  • Diamond Neon Tetras.
  • Black Neon Tetra.
  • Red Neon Tetra.
  • Green Tetra.

Neon Tetra Behavior And Tank Mates

Are you excited to keep a pet fish for the first time?

 Well, everyone is when it's the first time they try something new. Some people, especially beginners, buy their fish and can't wait to put them in the tank with other fish. But things will not go as planned. You have to be extremely careful when it comes to choosing tank mates.

 Neon Tetras are well known community fish. So, speaking of their behavior, they are peaceful aquarium fish. However, they sometimes act aggressively. Since neon tetras form schools of fish, they do well in the presence of their own. But that doesn't mean you can't keep them with other fish.

Best Tank Mates For Neon Tetras

 Neon Tetra is generally a peaceful and attractive tropical fish that is well suited for an aquarium. They like to be in the community of other non-aggressive fish or their own kind. Like humans, fish are also attracted to bright colors, so as with the neon tetra, choosing non-aggressive tankmates is key.

 Also, due to Neon Tetra's small body, they should not be kept with fish that can hold them in their mouths; You must strictly avoid predatory fish. Picking teammates for the neon tetra is a tricky part; if you keep them with the wrong fish, your neon tetra will definitely be killed. The best tank mate for Neon tetra is the neon tetra itself. These neon tetras are schooling fish and will do well in the presence of their own species.

 However, you need to know the size of the neon tetra school and research it carefully to find out what suits them best. If you want to see their schooling behavior, you need to keep at least 15-20. This will make them feel much more comfortable in the tank as a result. The neon tetra will be safe if you put it with small fish such as rasboras, dwarf gouramis, small catfish and other small tetras like the cardinal tetra.

 The cardinal tetra and the neon tetra are ideal tank mates and sometimes even form a school together. You can also keep African Dwarf Frog as teammates for Neon Tetras. Although it may sound a little odd, but works well. The perfect Tank Mates for Neon Tetra would be all peaceful species of the same size. Some of them are:

  • Harlequin Rasboras.
  • Guppies.
  • Mollies.
  • Corydoras Catfish.
  • Dwarf Gourami.
  • Giant Danios.
  • Loaches.

The Worst Tank Mates For Neon Tetras

 You may be thinking about the types of fish to avoid in the aquarium with Neon Tetra. Well, it's simple. Just don't pair them with species such as goldfish, bettas, angelfish, and cichlids, as well as other large or aggressive fish. Goldfish and Neon Tetras as teammates are a big no because of their different water preferences and temperaments.

Neon Tetra Care

 Neon Tetra is such a wonderful fish and the first pet fish for many people. Everyone can fall in love with the neon tetra at first sight. You will need an intermediate aquarium skill to keep Neon Tetra. Despite being hardy fish, neon tetras still need some care.

 There are few things neon tetras need in their aquarium to survive and live healthily, and it is your job to give them that. You will need a good sized aquarium, lights, a filtration system, a substrate to make them feel at home in your aquarium. Since knowing how to care for neon tetras in a tank is necessary, here are a few things you need to know to keep them happy.

Neon Tetra Diet: What Should You Feed Them?

 Food is an essential factor of survival, whether for humans or animals. Maintaining a good daily diet can be difficult, especially when you don't have enough time for your fish. Just like the human body needs a certain diet to function, this tetra also needs a proper diet if you don't want to see it suffer and die.

 Although neon tetras can go without food for a week, you need to be sure not to push their limit or experiment without food. Maintaining a neon tetra diet is not a difficult task as neon tetras are omnivores meaning they eat both meat and vegetables.

 They accept any form of food you provide them. All you have to do is take care of the nutrients. Their main diet is small insects, algae, and other tiny invertebrates in their natural habitat. But in your aquarium you need to provide them with good food.

 Feed them fine flake food, tiny pellets, pellets, brine shrimp, bloodworms and other forms of fish food like live worms, daphnia and tubifex from time to time . This will give the fish enough nutrients to be healthy. Tetras would love them, and they're evenly padded to help them achieve their vibrant colors. They are relatively slow to swallow and ingest food, so you should give them small pellets.

Water Parameter For Neon Tetra

 Just as we humans need fresh air, fish also need fresh, clean water to survive. Neon tetras are sensitive to the environment in which they live. So you need special attention while keeping these tetras. Do not add your neon tetra to the tank you just set up the day before or the day of.

 Let the water in the tank mature so that it is suitable for your fish. You can find chemicals and good bacteria in your pet store to speed up the maturation process that takes place in the aquarium's nitrogen cycle.

Best Water pH For Neon Tetra

 Likewise, the change in the pH level of the water can affect your neon tetras, leading to various health issues and diseases. You should maintain a pH level below 7.0 and above 6.0.

Best Water Hardness For Neon Tetra

 Also, maintain soft water or slightly acidic water always. (<10 dGH) in your aquarium. Simple things can have a huge impact on these little fish, no matter how hardy they are. Neon Tetra fish can withstand the harshest waters for maximum duration. However, introducing fish to hard water could have a negative effect on their life expectancy. It is recommended to use soft water.

Best Water Temperature For Temperature

 You must maintain the water temperature for your Neon Tetras well. Neon tetra prefer water that is between 70°F and 81°F in temperature. Ambient temperature can't help you achieve the tropical temperature these tetras demand. This is why neon tetras need an aquarium heater for their survival in the aquarium environment.

 Use a good quality aquarium heater with an automatic function. Your aquarium's water temperature will be automatically adjusted by these heaters. For your neon tetra tank, the Hitop submersible adjustable aquarium heater is strongly advised. All you have to do is set the water temperature and plug in the heater.

How To Maintain The Water Parameter For Neon Tetra?

 As the aquarium is a closed system, pollutants will remain in the aquarium unless you clean them. Thus, you will have to maintain the quality of the water in the aquarium. Using a good filter, maintaining water temperature, and changing the water are the three key elements to maintaining the water parameters of your Neon Tetra tank.

What Kind Of Filtration Does Neon Tetra Need

 Aquarium filters are a great help when it comes to maintaining your aquarium water. Since Neon Tetras have a minimal charge, any basic sponge filter or JOR Neon Tetra will be sufficient for the aquarium. A tank that has been properly cycled should never be without neon tetras.

Best Heater For The Neon Tetra Tank

 A heater maintains the optimum temperature consistently in the tank, which helps to increase the lifespan of Neon tetra in captivity. Neon tetras are tropical fish; they definitely need lukewarm water in the aquarium. As we know, Neon Tetras react negatively to cold water, so it's always a wise decision to keep the water slightly too warm rather than slightly cold.

Since I use the Eheim Jager aquarium heater, which has a thermostat for all my tanks, I recommend buying this product. Eheim radiators are very reliable; they have never disappointed me.

Water Change

 Using a high-quality aquarium filter is the best way to maintain the water in your aquarium so that Neon Tetras can survive. And do at least 10% water change every week.

 You may find chemicals in your pet store that are sold as aquarium water cleaners or purifiers. I would not recommend using these chemicals in your tank. Make the tank as organic as you can. If you can eliminate these chemicals and waste just by changing your water, why would you spend an extra dollar on these unnecessary chemicals?

 Changing the water will not only help remove waste and chemicals, but will also help maintain the pH and hardness of the water. You need an aquarium kit to check and maintain your pH between 6 and 7 and a water hardness below ten dGH.

Best Light For Neon Tetra

 Neon tetras are found in black water streams in the wild, where only a certain amount of light passes through the water. As a result, too much light will stress the neon tetra, which will allow various fish diseases to take hold. Moderate lighting is sufficient for tNeon Tetra and will make its body color stand out in a darker environment with small lights on.

 However, if you want to keep the neon tetra in a tank with live plants, get the right light for your plants. Since planted aquariums have plenty of hiding places, they can find places to hide if they get scared or stressed.

Best Substrate For Neon Tetra

 Neon tetras can live on anything from gravel to sand when it comes to substrate. They are not bottom dwellers, so they won't even mind having bare bottoms. But since these tetras love to have plants in their aquarium, you should opt for a plant growing medium.

 You should opt for substrates that provide good adhesion and nutrients for the plants. Also, a black colored substrate can be used in the tank with neon tetras as it helps darken the tetra tank by mimicking their natural habitat.

Decorations For Neon Tetra Tank

 Fish in an aquarium with just water look so unattractive and unnatural. You should provide plants in the aquarium as decoration where the fish can play or hide. Live plants will help maintain stable aquarium water parameters. Plants use nitrogen as fertilizer which is harmful to fish and provides oxygen for them to breathe. Go with plants such as:

  • Ludwigia repens.
  • Brazilian pennywort.
  • Vallisneria.
  • Cabomba.
  • Cryptocoryne wendtii.

 In times of threat, Tetra fish will go into plants. They swim in plants when trying to avoid any threat. It's always nice to add plants to the tank. They add a touch of beauty to the tank and also provide adequate filtration. Fake plants can also be used as an option. Black sand would be the preferred substrate because it brings out the bright colors of the neon tetra as much as possible.

The Ideal Tank Size For Neon Tetras

 Most beginner aquarists make a mistake when choosing an aquarium. No matter what fish you choose, you will always need a tank larger than the fish needs. It gives you plenty of room to play with it, like adding decorations and all. You need to be very careful with neon tetras and know the best tank size for neon tetras. You also need to know how many neon tetras to keep per gallon of water in the tank.

 Neon Tetras are schooling fish, so you need to keep that in mind when choosing an ideal tank. For Neon Tetras, if you plan to keep five or six in a school, a 20 gallon tank is sufficient. However, if it is a community tank, you should opt for a larger tank, at least 40 gallons.

- Let me give you an example: one inch of fish requires 2 gallons of water to survive; if you have five 2 inch-long fish, you must have at least a 20-gallon aquarium to house them.

Neon Tetras form schools of fish; they move in groups and need more space to swim freely. So the bigger the better.

How Many Neon Tetra Per Gallon?

 The general rule is that 1 gallon of water is needed for 1 inch of fish. Neon tetras can reach lengths of two inches. So a neon tetra tentatively requires 2 gallons of aquarium water. Suppose you purchased a 10 gallon tank for your neon tetra. Considering your tank has decorations, which takes up space.

 So let's say 3 gallons of water are covered. So you will be able to keep about four neon tetras in the case of a 10 gallon tank (10/3 = 3.33 or 4). You can increase the number to five or six, depending on the environmental quality of your tank.

Neon Tetra Tank Setup

 The correct tank setup is the most important step in caring for neon tetra. A brief explanation of how to set up the neon tetra tank is provided in the steps that follow.

Step 1: Choosing An Aquarium And Stand For Your Neon Tetra

 Neon Tetras grow up to 1.75 inches. Therefore, a neon tetra requires 2 gallons of water to live happily. So if you plan on keeping 5 Neon Tetras you will need a 10 gallon aquarium.

 Tanks are heavy, so you will need a sturdy support to place your aquarium on. You can buy a ready-made stand on Amazon or any other online marketplace.

Step 2: Adding Substrate, Plants And Decorations

 I like to keep neon tetras in planted aquariums. If the planted tank is out of your budget, you can buy plastic plants, creating plenty of hiding places. 

For the substrate, buy a darker substrate. This will make the color of your tetras show more.

Step 3: Adding A Heater, Filter, Lights, And Other Required Equipment

 The heater, filter and lights are the most important pieces of equipment in any aquarium. If you buy a tank kit, the equipment comes with the package.

Step 4: Cycle Through Your Aquarium

 The aquarium cycle is also known as the nitrogen cycle. It is the process of growing beneficial bacteria in your aquarium that will help break down toxins in your aquarium water such as ammonia and nitrites produced by fish waste and decaying plants and fish food.

 The nitrogen cycle will not happen overnight; it will take more than a week to two months to complete. So you have to be patient. Skipping the cycle can kill all of your neon tetras, so please allow your aquarium plenty of time to mature before introducing your fish.

Step 5: Add Neon Tetras

 Once your tank is cycled, you can safely add your Neon Tetras to your tank. Now that your tank is cycled, it's time to add some fish. However, do not overfill your tank. Use one inch of fish per gallon as the golden ratio at all times.

Step 6: Maintain Water Parameter

 To keep your Neon Tetra healthy, regular tank maintenance is crucial. Changing the tank water weekly to cleaning the filter media once a month is all it takes to maintain water parameters.

 Never completely change the water as this will kill all of your beneficial bacteria which will create a more toxic environment for your fish. A water change of 30 to 40% per week is sufficient for a small aquarium: the larger the tank, the less water change per week.

Breeding Of Neon Tetra

 Not everyone breeds their fish, especially beginners. In the case of breeding, there are a lot of things you need to know about the Neon tetra as they can be difficult fish to keep. Neon Tetras can be difficult to breed due to the requirement for specific water conditions. To reproduce them, we need to set up a different tank.

 The water hardness in the specific breeding tank should only be 1-2 dGH, and the pH should be monitored and maintained between 5.0 and 6.0. Use a soft strainer and provide them with live plants. They tend to jump around during their breeding rituals, so you need to cover the tank well without leaving any gaps.

 Covering the side panels of the tank with a lid to decrease the light in the tank is also excellent. It would be best to keep the water temperature between 72 and 75°F (24°C). So, let us get into the neon tetra breeding process and what are the growth stages of neon tetras.

How To Set Up The Breeding Tank For Neon Tetra

 During the breeding season, set up a separate breeding tank for the fish as they will be disturbed by other species in a communal tank.

The Breeding Tank

To raise neon tetras, the breeding pair must be placed in a breeding tank without light. It is best to cover your aquarium with newspaper so that the fish are not disturbed by people moving around the aquarium.

 Don't forget to use the tank cover as trading fish often jump around during the spawning season. Rhythm the exchange mops at the bottom of the tank and also place the aged sponge filter, with just a trickle of air flowing.

Neon Tetra Breeding Water State

 The neon tetra breeds best in soft, acidic water, so you can either collect rainwater or use reverse osmosis water. You should also maintain the hardness of the water in the breeding tank, which should only be 1-2 dGH and a pH of 5.0-6.0.

 After that, set the heater to 72-75°F to maintain the water temperature to help the Neon tetra feel like it is in its natural environment. Don't let the aquarium water stay too long. Change 25% to 50% of tank water weekly to maintain water quality. Be sure to check the water condition and quality once a week to make sure everything is okay.

Tank Decor For Breeding Tank

 For successful breeding, keep more hiding places in the tank with plants, driftwood, and pots. Neon Tetras are egg scatters. The female first lays the egg which sticks to the plants, which the male then fertilizes. It is best to use plants like moss in the breeding tank.

Neon Tetra Breeding Process

 After breeding, the tank is adjusted correctly and the breeding pair is chosen. They tend to reproduce as soon as they acclimatize to their new surroundings. The breeding process usually lasts 10-14 hours. You must closely monitor when the neon tetra will lay eggs, as the neon tetra may die after spawning.

 After the egg is fertilized, you need to remove the young fish from the tank. Neon tetra does not care about their eggs or fry. They will eat them all without hesitation.

Maintain Feeding During The Breeding Period

 People will be confused about whether to feed them during the breeding period or not. It's good to feed them. Good nutrition foods such as bloodworms, brine shrimp are essential for healthy fry. Feed Neon tetra twice a day which will encourage them to reproduce.

Caring For Neon Tetra Fry

 The Neon tetra egg will hatch within 24 hours and you may see small fry inside your tank. They will be able to swim freely in the next 2-3 days. You should not feed newly hatched neon tetra fry. Adding food to their tank will only degrade the water in the tank, risking their lives.

 Once they are able to swim freely, you can lower the water level to 7-8 centimeters high and make sure there is no mud on the surface of the water because these tiny neon tetra need to fill their bladder with fresh air. air. Once they start swimming, you need to give them a minimum amount of food. Foods such as egg yolk, infusoria, and commercially prepared fried foods are best.

 Excess food and uneaten food can raise the level of ammonia in the water, killing any tiny neon tetras. Any uneaten food in the tank needs to be removed. You can also use an aquarium filter better suited for tetra fish fry, such as the sponge filter, to maintain the water quality in the tank.

- Note: Don't expect more egg fry as the hatching rate is not that high.

- Fact: "A small school of neon tetra can lay hundreds of eggs per week."

List Of Diseases That Neon Tetra Can Suffer From

 There are an infinite number of diseases that an aquatic animal can catch. The following describes some of these diseases:

  • Neon Tetra Disease.
  • Fin And Tail Rot.
  • Columnaris.
  • Dropsy.
  • Pop-Eye.
  • Cloudy Eyes.
  • Mouth Fungus.
  • Fungal Infection.
  • White Spot Disease or ICH.
  • Swim Bladder Disorder.
  • Ammonia Poisoning.

Neon Tetra Disease

 Fish get sick and sometimes die without a trace. This is something every fish farmer should know and will help them take the right steps. Unfortunately, Neon Tetra suffers from a fatal disease caused by the Microsporidian parasite.

 The disease is called Neon Tetra Disease, because this disease was first discovered in Neon Tetras. Once the fish is infected with the parasite, it literally eats the fish upside down. Diseases can also spread quickly and attack other tetras, as well as fish of other breeds.

Symptoms Of Neon Tetra Disease

- Fish body colors slowly fade, which is often visible on one part of the body.

- Fish infected with Neon Tetra disease will have difficulty swimming and may become bottom dwellers.

- Curved spines and shrunken stomachs are symptoms of neon tetra disease.

- Swollen and rotten fins.

- Developing cysts on the stomach area when the body starts having lumps.

Disease Prevention

 There is no cure for Neon Tetra disease to date. If your fish catches this disease, it will spread throughout the tank and kill other fish. It is therefore preferable to separate fish infected with NTD.

"Prevention is better than cure."

  • Whenever you buy a new fish, quarantine it first. Before putting them in your display aquarium, be on the lookout for any strange behavior.
  • Avoid buying sick fish at the store.
  • Always properly maintain the quality of your water.
  • Always buy fish from reputable suppliers. However, if you buy fish online, be sure to check reviews.
  • Maintain your fish diet regularly.


 Among all tetra species, Neon Tetra is one of the most popular fish in the world. Its demand is also relatively high compared to any other tetra species. The United States alone imports more than two million Neon Tetra each month. The hardy neon tetra fish can tolerate a variety of water conditions but needs little care.

 These fish are an ideal fish for beginner fish keepers who know little about their needs. I have covered almost every topic regarding neon tetra in this article. If you have any questions regarding this fish, please comment in the comment section. I will be happy to answer all.

Only credible sources, such as peer-reviewed studies, are used by Nodisk One to substantiate the information in our articles.